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PUBLISHED BY 



THE CHEMICAL FOUNDATION INCORPORATED 




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IATIONAI 



PR IN I KD IX I . S. A. 



THE STAINLESS PRINCE OF STEELS 




GLITTERING NEWCOMER 

has emerged from the steel industry to tilt its lance at steel's oldest 



enemy 



rust. 






Twenty-five years ago an unrealized dream of centuries, as late as 1929 
little more than an industrial curiosity, Stainless Steel is today being hailed 
as the forerunner of a new era in metallurgy and as the leader of the steel 
industry's now quickening onward march out of depression. 

Engineers known for conservatism call it the most important develop- 
ment in steel alloys since introduction of high-speed steels in 1900. And 
industry, despite the lethargy of recent years, has eagerly accepted it as such 
and rushed it into so many breaches that veteran steel men lately have been 
catching their breaths at the all-sweeping pace. 

Several years ago when the tide of orders began to mount dizzily, the 
sales manager for a leading producer set his office staff to work tabulatin 
the uses to which the new alloy was being put. After a short time he threw 
up his hands. So varied and diverse were the uses and so rapidly did they 






PAGE 3 



I 



multiply that it was impossible to keep track of them. It was like trying to 
count and classify the raindrops. 

Into every industry, into practically every shop in some form or another 
and into most of the nation's homes — proud and humble alike — has gone 
this prince of steels, not alone to combat rust but to contribute vitally to 
some of our most notable industrial advances. The handling of food and 
especially of milk has been revolutionized by it, and it is blazing a way to 
an even more spectacular revolution in rail transportation. Our vast new 
chemical industry, perhaps the greatest American gain growing out of the 
World War, is dependent upon Stainless Steel in some of its most basic 
operations. So are the oil, rayon, paper, aviation, and automobile industries, 
to mention just a few of a lengthening list. 

Every new warship that steams to sea is a striking testimonial of the 
Navy's faith in the new alloy that won't rust, won't tarnish or stain, and 
which has four to six times the tensile strength of ordinary structural, sheet 
and plate steels. A single large manufacturer of agricultural equipment and 
trucks employs Stainless Steel in upward of forty separate applications. 

From false teeth to the mighty reaches of Boulder Dam, from mirrors 
for insane asylums to the gleaming beauty of the Chrysler building's tower- 
ing spire, from cell locks for jails to the precision instruments of surgeons — 
such wide extremes point the ever-broadening range of "stainless" in the 
present-da\ market. To date the ratio of its successes to failures has been 
a hundred to one, and these )lated instances of failure have been chiefly 
the consequence of insufficient testing or of plain misapplication. 

As to the future — 

It is the opinion of many of steel's must competent observers that in the 
not t > distant future the large t part of our steel output will be in some 
form of Stainless Steel. A whole new held for exploration has been opened, 
not only in metalhi ;v but in industry as well. This wonder of allows after 
ill is still new. In countless applications it is as yet untried. Public knowledge 
• r its properties is still sketchy. Its first large-scale use came in depression. 

Irs big swing is yet ahead. 

In view of these tacts, and 1 the already fast expanding market, business 

and public may well look more closely into Stainless Steel, its history, it 
formi and its finitely proven i up to now. It is doubtful if any other 

industrial development of recent years contains more striking elements of 
romance and drama or more intimately affects our national life. In thi 
prince of stee a champion of infinite promise has indeed arisen to conquer. 



r.i 4 




E r Entrance a ' Doers of ; i C -A r n m k •/. 

Hotel /fnst ia. A York City. 







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II 

S lorvj ;is iron and steel have been used, what mi I lunir oi them 

has constantly been threatens b) rust. < Kir annual I "II | to thi 



red oxide of iron has bee astir it< up to thre millions oi tla I cifc 



A 



a si? t ample ot ru toll, Manhar i i Br . in \ew > rk ( v is 

r< i ntlv rep ni I at a cost oi $2 r r labor and f oo for p int. Such 

ex) «ed steel structures must be re] nted at l< i vtt) fourth j and 
in addition a crew of m n must Ik i j ilarh employed to applj pr< 

Oat in \s w hei rust i! is n. -re^ I it. 

Rust is the gi at d< rofth Steel \ ft has j tpardized our f 1 

bv the constant threat oi © ntamii >n. \\ has mei th< rity oi our 

h< tiii ils, from which .ie m h md d If has ;i I as a bai 
pr< 'L'i i \ in all fi * oi s< i 

I >r i enturi< w as I oi n j to pi I tha 

would nor rust, No i hei metal than a would d< it v foi I r 

ample, silver r arnish >pp ani i i f ill »n a 

oppt i n kel alio] i i I " h i id ta< k tn I is u 



i a ( • tai ing i m st m< I m Hake < be p 11 plat inu >t 




teel, while valuab tiled to ti] rhear wei his n [ l>l 

IniM th( the I hnll thai \h igh rh lb f the Y h 

in. i a 1 1 u i ? , Bi i , wht iftei i >i w rk h< \ en 

it ant st I alloy. It wa ju it bef ^ H \\ r. I i v a 

>r an all >\ , be used in n d tha 

• \{ just .uned fire. H< ' urn I li rl 

pi a< tic< ' ■ i the all< >v fir h« >t >ulphuri< hi icid 

bath Then ^-n qui urn pr him * a I I at. 

What t> )\ m ed i l» ' he im< I lam lir earley on the tha 

da\ 's h t« »r\ . 

I rtain t Bi arle> hromium I ii e I 

phuiu awA \w i Is were quil immi I the 

a< id f 

u \ . a i idai m e woi ur I in B \ I 

daw he ali I the * r • >i ^ hat he ha 1 1 

remblt as he repeat* the I ^r w h nitric a i t Ik 



\itru I is an lizing he reasoi I - 



^ 



b with the matei d ai ked« v like* > n :rr g m rhc air 

and in water, a pr lu< I fhen re if a im 



/ 



would resist nitric acid why wouldn't it also resist rust? More tests, daws of 

inxious waiting, and Brearley got his answer. Idle new alloy /)//) resist rust! 

This experimental work of Brearley was carried on in the great English 

teel cent< at Sheffield and naturally the first chromium steels produced 

• trie ut in Sheffield's most famous product, cutlery. A fervent "Thank 

God!" was sent heavenward l>\ English housewives for the new knives and 
ith m nsils that w ild neither rust nor stain nor tarnish. At last a rustless 

! was a fact. 

| Ids ai cutl J tvp( of steel contained about i: per cent chromium 

t. r cent < rbon. The ame analysis with certain modifications 

gher hr< iun andcarbi >ntents is still the standard for Stainless 

1 cutlerv. But H irle} s work and thai of his associates at Sheffield was 

onl) a ■ arti skirmish in tin batth against rust, a battle forgotten tor a 

n \ the public as the world went to war. 

The war ipt< tin lercial intro action of " stainless " be ise 

liumwasi if titary uses. In German) , I ^vever, B< ino Strauss 

Jiad in \ th< ombination oi lir um and nickel in si 1 and found 

rli with n pen of these alloying elements, such as 1 8 p< cent 

i . , ■ ] r i kel, a | u< i S( un ! that possess* \ en 

coi i tl i tl si jht chromium steels of tlu 

t\],. \l« \ ( ;. rjium-nickel s poss< ed great ase tl 

i| plai h um st itaining 1 6 p< r 1 1 m 

i ami I) ;i h m bon nt< w re inter 

, i n i| h r e t< between 1 hi i ui ler) i \ pe and t he 

iui | ] rhi h .'Ir In* i in ;t< Iso possess ph-udid 

. | \. , j et n re i \ i brought i I I ha! b) re- 

. • i i of tin ty] .12 per i in un ing 

j il wa ( m I ca worl bility 

\ \- | he ne tin i I Ins w • .ill did I l»a\ o 

n r to ui tii prop 

I i • f Si ili s St I I" ui I 



ar n„. 




v itlerv 

* 

li • ;d>' l ) ]" . 

a: nt v hr n h able t) ) 




Ulc chroi kel ty] 



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Back counter flashing, wall panels at entrance of bar, two grills, top 
and side of woodwork. Plaza Hotel bar, New York City. 



i 










1 












Stainless Steel milk tank uuda aged after dynamite explosion. 



all with or without the addition of other special alloying elements. Today 
one manufacturer alone produces thirty different special types of Stainless 
Steel, each possessing specific properties from the others. However, the most 
commonly used and best known type is the so-called "18-8" — the alloy of 
18 per cent chromium and 8 per cent nickel. 

Now mark one more fact: 

Brearley, Strauss and the others sought merely rust resisting steels of 
good strength. They succeeded beyond their wildest dreams. They got steels 
of a strength not before known in alloys of this character. Types 1 and 2 of 
Stainless Steel can be heat treated to produce tensile strength of more than 
200,000 pounds per square inch. Types 3 and 4 possess tensile strength ol 
80,000 to 100,000 pounds per square inch in the annealed condition, and 
may be cold worked in thin sheets or wire to tensile strengths of 200,000 to 
350,000 pounds per square inch. 

When these figures are compared with the tensile strength of ordinary 
structural steels and ordinary sheet and plate steels, which is only 50,000 
to 60,000 pounds per square inch, one can readily understand why engineers 
today are talking of the dawn of a new era in steel. 




Not long ago, during a price war in a southern city, a 2000-gallon single 
compartment Heiloy metal drop frame milk truck was blown up by dyna- 
mite, which had been placed in the rear can rack of the metal tank. The 
explosion tore off the aluminum and cork covering of the tank, smashed a 
supporting crossbeam, blew out two tires and shattered the cab windows 
thirty-five feet ahead. To quote the user: "The tank was full of milk at the 
time. There were no leaks after the explosion occurred and after being 
reinsulated and covered with aluminum, the truck was again put into 
service without missing a single trip." 

When the debris was cleared away the tank itself was minutely examined. 
There was a bulge in the side which had received the impact of the explosion 
but that was all. The welds were tight. The thin metal shell was not so much 
as cracked. Re-insulated and re-covered with aluminum the tank was put 
back into service without missing a trip. It was of Stainless Steel. 



PAGE 11 



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Ill 

THE first large-s ale use of Stainless Steel came in 1930. Henry Ford, 
breaking from the traditions of his old Model T car to introduce some- 
thing smarter and more beautiful, encased the radiators of his new Model A 

in the glittering new rustless and stainless metal. It was a sensation. Since 
then the automobile industry has become one of the world's largest users of 

Stainless teel. It gleams in the sun of every highway and by-road from hub 

caps, lamp shells, body moldings, running board trims, radiator shells and 

head 1 hts. Aln >st may it be said, the finer the car the more Stainless Steel 
will be found in if istruction. Rain, snow, sleet, the salt air of the sea, 
the murk ofcit) atn >spher< , the mud of back roads, all the punishments of 
travi neither harm its surface nor dim its lustre. Simply wipe it off with a 
v t cl th ai i its ivi ) surfai is new again, outlasting the ear. In auto- 
mobile grat yards, mid rust and decay, it still gives defiance to weather 
tnd time ai 1 n lect. 

'I ;ke ; irt the modern motor s engine, a marvel of power, speed, 
pr< ind sileno , and u will find Stainless Steel the guardian of son 

tnpor int \\r, »ns. For the Stainless Prince has yet another 
l [tis r< ' ttoh it. Where steels of ordinary cult un 

br< 1 and gth under the fi< ce temperatures of combustion, 

' re\ lit eh you will find it adding to the fine motor's 

enduram I dej idal ili 1 manifold heal control units, pump shaft* 

valv< ing , vi 1 boll and nuts. In the aviation engine when failure 

1 greatest hazard the new a] 03 is even more fully relied upon. 

\ ilini riv< the mod* n motors of highwaj and skyway, new 

th the 1 ' their whii irti and new greas< i lend a new 

I iwer, \ ain thank Stainless Steel, new master servant 

0} :1 indu It is an t I pan t 1 i pump' ipmenl in th 

I In % held J ly it » mi po bit the present-day high 

avii s of millions of dollars annually 

t 

Mi 1 rn il ig ai he use f h emperatun and 

pn 1 ig au iinc . '1 ibet nployt in asoline cracking 

plant w ; - ind to j do cie >1 heat ul u rifi< II 

re no im il in a • rm 1 <.] tings mt 1 its trength ai 

1 1 M • vi r" cru es from mill ontinent fi <ls 

ateint cralK >ch , Lif( f racl utfitt 

1 ul w late at ele\ n wee! 



■ 




Stainless Steel automatic positive milk holder. 



Today, after more than rive years of punishment under the heat and 
pressure and corrosive threats of gasoline cracking, tubes of Stainless Steel 
are still in service without the least evident impairment or loss of effective- 
ness. The result is that thousands of tons of "stainless" have gone into the 
petroleum industry to perform work that no other known alloy is fitted to 
do. And at the same time the stainless alloys have been found equally effec- 
tive against the still higher temperatures and pressures of the hydrogenation 
process of cracking whereby 104 barrels of gasoline can be obtained from 
100 barrels of crude. Thus the Stainless Prince stands almost as a lone guard 
gainst a dwindling oil supply, one of the primary pillars of our national 

securitv. 

We use as much oil in America as all the rest of the world combined. As 
a fuel it is the life-blood of the Navy. The automobile industry is built on 
oil. Under the older methods of refining, which with some crudes produced 
as little as ten barrels of gasoline to the hundred, there was real reason for 
concern over the future sufficiency of our oil resources. That worry has been 
largely dissipated by the new cracking methods and the promises held out 
by hydrogenation. The latter, say engineers, will not only in effect expand 
our oil supply by many times but will make it possible, should the need 
arise, to convert an almost limitless amount of oil directly from coal, which 
we have in super-abundance. It is Stainless Steel that has made possible 
this prospect. 




IV 

VERY arm and unit of transportation, apart from the ox-cart and the 
horse-drawn wagon, is leaning more and more heavily upon the stain- 
less alloys. Led by the United States Navy progressive shipping is turning 
to "stainless" in the construction of its latest vessels. New uses lately intro- 
duced in railroading point to a startling revolution in this field within the 
next two decades. 

Superior strength permits a use of much less metal, which means less 
weight. American naval engineers were among the first to recognize this fact. 
It bears upon a pressing naval problem: tonnage limits set by treaty have 
made weight a major factor in vessels of war. 

Seeing in the findings of Brearley and Strauss the double opportunity of 
reducing weight without impairing fighting effectiveness and at the same 
time of dealing a body blow at corrosion, a more serious menace at sea than 



PAGE 15 



on land, our naval engineers became perhaps the outstanding pioneers in the 
development of stainless alloys in America. They went into the steel industry 
and worked hand in hand with its experts in exhaustive tests. By rigid speci- 
fications and the thoroughness of their inspections they aided materially in 
raising the quality of stainless products. They helped develop new applica- 
tions, which rapidly found their way into all industries and into all types of 
the Navy's new vessels. 

Todav, as a result, fuel tanks for submarines and cruisers, deck-houses 
and lattice-work masts, rivets in hulls, manholes in torpedo bulkheads, gun 
mounts, cooking utensils and refrigerators on the modern ship of war are 
all of Stainless Steel. By actual count in more than one hundred ways, each 
of them different, the x^merican Navy relies upon "stainless." Lighter ships 
but ships that are stronger and more lasting have become the order of the sea. 

And on land, lighter and faster railroad trains, shimmering silver streaks 
of luxuriant travel, are flashing over the rails where once thundered alone 
the Iron Horse. Weight, a problem of the Navy, is likewise a railroad prob- 
lem in this modern age of motor cars and airplanes. The ice cold economics 
of a vanishing passenger business and of freight revenues being sucked up 
by trucks have caused the railroads to turn hopefully to the lighter, stronger, 
rustless alloys. Pioneers as bold in their dreams as any Hill or Harriman of 
old are today welding together a new railroad empire out of ingots of Stain- 
less Steel. 

Follow the news — 

A few weeks ago a Stainless Steel train with 88 passengers aboard flashed 
from Philadelphia to Sarasota, Florida, and return — a distance of 2,861 
miles — at a fuel cost of only $43.72. This was one-tenth of the cost of coal 
for a comparable steam train. It was less than the cost of operating an auto- 
mobile over the same distance. Yet the 1,093 gallons of fuel oil that supplied 
m tn e pow er also provided air-conditioning, electric lights and refrigeration. 
That oil cost four cents a gallon. 

If you chance to live along the line of the Burlington in the vicinity of 
( )maha, you may see a similar train, first of the famous Zephyrs, on its daily 

run. Its total weight is less than 219,000 pounds. It replaced two standard 
trains that together weighed 1,618,000 pounds or almost eight times it. 

Only the other day two more Zephyrs known as The Twins went into 
regular service between Chicago and the Twin Cities of -Minneapolis and 
St. Paul. Grey-topped granddads felt a thrill unknown since school days as 



P I 16 




Hydroplane Anchor Flukes, of 18-S Chrome-Nickel Stainless Steel. 
Weight, 11$ lbs. 




Elevating Arc, Cylinder Cap and Bracket Castings of iS-S Chroi - 
Nickel Stainless ' Steel. Weights: Elevating Arc 323 lbs.; Cylinder 
Cap JO lbs.; Bracket 9 lbs. 







CO 









s 



they glimpsed these speeding streaks under the western sun. But the thrill 
that came to railroad executives, harassed by rising costs and dwindling 
income, had its source in a matter-of-fact report by Coverdale & Colpitts, 
firm of New York consulting engineers, A paragraph of that report, based 
on a study of the first Zephyr and dated January 15, 1935, is well worth 
quoting. It follows: 

The material of which the train is constructed, exclusive of the engine bed, articulation 
castings, trucks and power plant, is in the main a cold rolled low carbon steel alloy con- 
taining 18 per cent chromium and 8 per cent nickel, known as 18-8 or stainless steel. 
Under all ordinary conditions it is non-corrosive. The strength of cold rolled stainless 
steel, such as is used in the construction of the Zephyr^ as compared with that of other 
steels, is approximately as follows: 

Yield Point Uti. Strength 

Type of Steel {Pounds) {Pounds) 

Ordinary steel 30,000 45,000 

Corten steel 55>°oo 70,000 

Cold rolled stainless steel 120,000 150^000 

In other words, here are passenger trains j}4 times stronger than ordinary 
standard trains and which are faster, simpler, cleaner, quieter, and weigh 
only one-eighth as much as comparable equipment. The engineers' prosaic 
report marked a new day in railroading. 

In New England, the Flying Yankee is blazing a stainless steel trail be- 
tween Boston and Bangor, the fourth train of this type to go into service 
on American railroads- A stainless steel subway train is operating experi- 
mentally over B. M. T. Lines in New York City. Six big railroads are inves- 
tigating Zephyr-type trains as built by the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing 
Company of Philadelphia. 

So important and promising does General Motors consider this trend in 
railroading that its subsidiary, the Electro-Motive Corporation, is now build- 
ing at Chicago a complete new plant for the large-scale manufacture of 
Diesel locomotives, the power units that have been breaking all records with 
the growing Zephyr-type fleet. And so important does General Motors regard 
the place of Stainless Steel in the modern transportation picture that such 
vital parts of its Diesels as crankshafts, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, con- 
necting rods and camshafts are specified of stainless alloys. These are parts 
that "must not fail." 



PAGE 19 



V 

THROUGHOUT the construction industry the Stainless Prince is flash- 
ing an unstained sword in the face of rust. Where skyscrapers rise 
highest, where dams loom biggest, in places where a failure in materials 
means lives or irreparable losses, there "stainless" stands guard. 

In vast Federal projects such as Boulder Dam, giant of giants, the stain- 
less alloys are playing a stupendously important role. The rollers that sup- 
port the massive hinges of the gates as well as the carrying mechanism itself, 
together with the stems that apply the moving force to the gates, are of 
Stainless Steel. Thus is provided a surety that as long as Boulder Dam stands 
its gates will open and close smoothly, free of all danger of sticking because 
of rust. 

Along the Mississippi River wherever Federal dams are rising in the 
mighty effort of government engineers to check the annual menace of floods, 
Stainless Steel is being used to prevent failure of the water gates in emer- 
ency. In far away Egypt you will find Chrome-Nickel Stainless, 1,500 tons 
of it, buttressing the great mile-and-a-quarter long Assouan Dam on the 
River Nile, rebuilt and heightened a few years ago by the British Gov- 
ernment. 

The newest skyscrapers and the finest of new buildings of all types glisten 
in stainless alloys. About the time Ford was first putting " stainless" in his 
cars, Walter P. Chrysler was using an equally spectacular method of testi- 
fying to his faith in it. The great building bearing his name that lifts its 
graceful spire heavenward far above the Grand Central district in New York 
City is literally sheathed in Stainless Steel. Also " stainless " is used exten- 
sively in doors, store-fronts, interior lobby trim, elevators and so on. Com- 
menting upon this, the first large employment of the metal in architecture, 
Frank B. Rogers, vice-president of the Chrysler Building Corporation, writes: 

"More than five years have elapsed since construction of the Chrysler Building in 
which we made extensive use of 1 8-8 Chrome-Nickel Steel. It has been satisfactory from 
every standpoint. 

"This material, in addition to all entrances, show window fronts through three floors, 
stair rails and lobby ornamentations, was used exclusively for the covering of the dome. 
Within the past six months we have had occasion to inspect the dome, and while finding 
it dirty from smoke and flv ash we also found that it is cleaned somewhat by the action 
of the elements. There was no pitting, corrosion or other deterioration apparent; the 
surface when wiped appeared the same as when installed. 



PAGE 20 




The Tower of the Chrysler Building, New York City 







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44 Because of the accumulation of soot or dirt the dome has taken on a gray h ap- 
pearance, but not as would result from the oxidation of other materials. In fact, the 
dome has dulled in color consistent with the aging of the masonry work of the tower 
so that there exists no sharp contrast with the enameled brick and continues a ver 
pleasing appearance. 

"The selection of 18-8 Chrome-Nickel Steel for entrances, show windows I interior 
ornamentation has demon trated an economy, b ause of its easy maint* am . md 
although costly in initial installation has more than warranted the choice. Tli material 
does not require continual polishing as do other metals comm used for si h purpoi u 

The only cleaning required is for the removal of dirt, and ii ad of having sp il men, 
metal polishers, the show-window frames and ornamentations are taken care of \ th< 

* 

window ( leaners along with the gla I at the same time. 



It '|> 



To summarize, I should sa) that we are w pleased in every r ct u 1 rh 
selection of 18-8 Chrom< Nickel Steel u d in the Chr .!■ r Buildin 1 have n- 

mendetl its use to others on numer oc< I 

After Chrysler can the 86-story Empire State Building in New ^ >rk 

City, the world's tallest buildin \ I most ten times as much Stainless Sti I 
was used in its construction as was the ease with the Chrj sler Building. Thi 

was due partly to the greater size of Empire S ite but more to tin increasing 
acceptance of the lighter, >nu,cr, stainlc s alio 5 by ar< hite< ts, \ definite 

trend had set in involving a radii ally improved construction principle — th 
elimination of a high percentage of the he ivy ne wall se tion through 

substitution of prefabricated formed sec ma of Stainless Si el. Another 

notable example of (his trend is the Syracu I i ,f ing Building of the Hud- 
son Niagara Company, at Syracuse, V Y. With the resumption of la 

building activit) a rapidly growing u the new prin d ai hiteel 

is certain. 

Steel products used tor building e\ :n have man\ arehite tUJ 1- 

vantages. The rate of building with p 1 ri ited mt 1 is much fa r than 
with stone or brick. There is n t the 1 uai dehi necessary for the settin 

of cement, and large exterior surfaces are ( v en 1 with a minimum of weigh 

handled. Kase ot erection is an important < I reduci item. The 4 I linl 
group of steels lend themselves rea< t weldii and rivetii tire tly to 

the steel skeleton as well as with the 1 il clij nd screw They permit 
much thinner walls, which in turn create more effective H< r >pa \ The 

lend themselves admirably lati n against heat anil >un I. 






Tremendous strides are being made in buiJ g insuJai parallel 

the advance of Stainless Steel. Manx r rmsof insulati n, such a rl 
fibreboardj rock wool and asbestos cemenl , are now av lilable for sp t \f\ 



/' 10 / 23 



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Exterior 'dew of Radio City Music Hall, New York City. 

Largest indoor theatre in the world, with a seating capacity of 6,200. 



' 



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Empire St.ife Building, \ .. V k Cit 






purposes. For example, a wall of steel, fibreboard and plaster only i 9 /ie inches 
thick has a resistance to heat equal to that of a solid masonry wall of 10V2 
inches thickness. The steel-type wall has a weight only of 8V2 pounds per 
square foot as against a weight of 85 pounds per square foot in the masonry 
wall. And the thin steel-type wall is the stronger — it will stand before forces 
that will cause the masonry wall to collapse. It is the more fire-proof wall of 
the two. It is longer lived. 

The imitation sky in the great new Fels Planetarium in Philadelphia is 
entirely of chrome-nickel Stainless Steel and for that reason will outlast the 
building. 

A few years ago government inspectors discovered that the huge dome 
of the famous old St. Paul's Cathedral in England was showing signs of 
deterioration. Not only was the life of the magnificent structure threatened 
but the fractures in the dome constituted a serious danger to worshippers. 
A group of England's finest engineers studied the problem of how best the 
dome might be saved. Tremendous cost was involved. This, plus the irre- 
placeable value of the old cathedral, prompted a most exhaustive investigation 
of all available materials that might be used in the repair. 

Tests were made both with tie rods of strong common alloy steels and 
with rods of 18-8 chrome-nickel stainless. The rough oxidizable surfaces of 
the common alloy steels readily adhered to the cement, which at first seemed 
to be an advantage. However, it required a maximum load only of 2.85 tons 
for withdrawal of the plain rods. Then bars of 18-8 were rolled and indented 
so that a series of flats was formed. To withdraw these bars from the hardened 
cement took a maximum pull of 18.88 tons. 

The result is stainless steel tie rods 40 feet long, threaded at each end 
and four inches in diameter, are now firmly embedded in the walls of St. 
Paul's to tie the inner wall to the outer wall of the dome. Should haircracks 
ever appear in the concrete and these rods be exposed to moisture, they still 
will be unweakened, as they are rustless. Thus the most modern of steels is 
insuring the permanence of an edifice that was old when the steel industry 
as such was still young. 

The same type steel flashes from the burnished letters of business signs, 
gleams softly in the furnishings of modernistic penthouses on Park Avenue, 
adds lightness and strength and beauty to the skyscraper's elevator, lends 
a new and spotless touch of luxury to the latest de luxe bathrooms. Daily, 
our construction industry is becoming more intimately acquainted with this 
alloy of endless purposes. Its fullest use here is only beginning to be dreamed. 



1 



PAGE 26 





Earl Carroll Theatre, New York City. 

Doors and Marquee are of 18-8 Chrome-Nickel Seamless SteeL 




1 



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VI 

O single enterprise in which we engaged during the World War has 
been the subject of so much controversy since as the gigantic govern- 
ment dam at Muscle Shoals. Now the heart of a vast electric power develop- 
ment in the South, the original purpose for which the mighty dam was 
conceived has been largely forgotten. Yet to historians Muscle Shoals stands 
as the symbol of one of the most dramatic efforts of the war. 

Nitrogen is one of the commonest of chemical elements. It abounds in 
the air. However, when the World War broke all nitrogen for practical uses 
was obtained only from two sources, namely, the distillation of coal and from 
Chile saltpeter. It requires 400 tons of coal to yield one ton of nitrogen, so 
to all intents the world in 1914 was dependent on a single ready source of 
nitrogen supply — the nitrate beds of Chile. At once faraway Chile became 
the focal point of all military eyes. 

Without nitrogen it was impossible to manufacture any explosives, agri- 
culture would be handicapped by lack of valuable fertilizers, industry was 
dependent on it in various ways. The British Navy rushed to keep open the 
nitrate lanes to Chile and to block off the supply of Germany, in which 
mission it was successful. But German submarines tore into Allied shipping 
and German chemists startled the world with a major exploit long in prepa- 
ration: they perfected a method of extracting nitrogen from the air, and the 
war, which might otherwise have ended, went on. 

By the time we got into the conflict, in 1917, so serious had become the 
submarine menace and so obvious its lesson on the future economic and 
military security of all nations, every Great Power was building plants of 
one kind or another for the atmospheric fixation of nitrogen. Congress appro- 
priated $80,000,000 for Muscle Shoals where it was planned to extract nitro- 
gen from the air by a process requiring large amounts of cheap electric power. 
The war ended with Muscle Shoals unfinished and the nitrogen problem of 

America still unsolved. 

It was too big a problem to drop, however. A reborn American chemical 
industry carried on. By 1922 not only had the German chemists' exploit 
with atmospheric nitrogen been duplicated but a vastly superior fixation 
process had been developed. We began producing ammonia from air, water 
and coal, and from ammonia we got nitric acid, the vital compound of 
nitrogen. Chile's monopoly was broken, a threatened German monopoly was 
checked, in peace and in war we stood secure in the assurance of a domestic 
nitrogen supply sufficient for all our needs. 



page 20 



A leading factor in providing this security in America was the du Pont 
Company, of Wilmington, Delaware. Says Dr. H. L. Maxwell, metallurgist, 

of this Company: 

"In the synthesis of ammonia from air, coal and water considerable amounts of 
Stainless Steel are used economically. At certain points in the process these steels are 
necessary in keeping down costs. In the oxidization of ammonia to nitric acid chrome steels 
of high chromium and low carbon content are absolutely indispensable." 

The Stainless Prince thus guards not only our future security in oil but 
has made possible in even more positive terms our security in nitrogen, 
without which no modern nation could long function in peace or survive in 



war. 



Likewise " stainless " is growing in use in the dye industry and through- 
out chemistry in general as a guard against impurities and because of its 
strength and high-temperature resisting qualities- Dr. Maxwell also says: 

"The trend in dye manufacture is away from ordinary steel equipment to the stainless 
alloys. The latter permit greater economy of operation, are more adaptable to changes 
in processes, and give longer life. In the storage of many kinds of chemicals, stainless steel 
tanks offer a wider range of resistance to corrosive action, with the result that they have 
rendered invaluable service in the past few years. They make it possible to store materials 
for longer periods, allow a more flexible practice in buying and in disposal, which is highly 
important when prices are irregular. The first cost of these tanks is higher but the savings 
they make possible more than warrant it. 

"Until recent years it was not possible to heat treat large storage tanks to develop their 
maximum corrosion resistance. Late developments, however, both in welding and in heat 
treatment have given the chemical industry a high quality of equipment not before avail- 
able. Tanks as big as freight cars are now being heat treated successfully. In every respect 
the stainless group of steels has been so improved as to leave no question of their essential 
place in the chemical industry/' 

And as chemicals go in varying form into virtually every other industry > 
in their trail follows Stainless Steel fighting impurity and its twin, corrosion. 

Dictate a letter — the chances are that the paper on which it will be 
typed owes a debt to "stainless." To what extent acids are used in the 
manufacture of various types of paper is not generally known, but the fact 
is rhere is hardly an industry that is more vulnerable in its various 
processes to attacks of rust or corrosion than the paper industry. High-grade 
bond papers must approach perfection. The slightest contamination or 
discoloration will cause a rejection of a large amount of stock. For several 
years now the stainless alloys have been helping solve some of paper's 
most difficult problems and thereby cutting thick slices off losses once 
thought to be unavoidable. The same is true in textiles. 



1 



PACE 30 




Stainless Steel Ice Cream Mix Cooler. 




Three Stainless Steel Rotary Dve Machines 










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The food industry's first mandate is purity, which is to say that in this 
modern age Stainless Steel has become an accepted necessity in the manu- 
facture and handling of all kinds of food. Dine in any large modern hotel, 
restaurant or cafeteria — it is three-to-one that your meal will be brought 
to you from a stainless-equipped kitchen. Visit any up-to-date food plant — 
white-coated attendants will proudly point out that "stainless" is the only 
metal permitted to touch the product. Today dairymen haul their milk in 
"stainless" cans; it is separated and churned in ''stainless "-equipped cream- 
eries; shipped by rail and truck in "stainless" tanks, and bottled with 
"stainless" machinery. 

Meat packing is going rapidly over to the new steel that will not taint, 
or poison, or discolor, or wear out. "Stainless" is establishing wholly new 
standards of purity in the making of all such personal articles as toothpastes, 
shaving creams, germicides, chocolate candy. 

In 1932 a Milwaukee brewer, Fred Gettelman, took a yellow pencil stub 
from his pocket and sketched on a piece of brown wrapping paper his idea 
of what a modern beer barrel should be. The result is that nowadays the 
finest of beers and ales are transported in kegs lined with Stainless Steel, 
from breweries that glitter with this prince of metals. 




VII 

N the steel industry itself a new day has dawned for stainless alloys. Those 
of today are not the alloys of five or eight years ago. As is inevitable 
with any new thing the early "stainless" products were not perfect. Two 
pieces of equipment bought at the same time under the same specifications 
did not always perform alike in service. They do today. 

Definite standards have been established and accepted throughout the 
steel industry. Classified information bearing on each type of stainless alloy 
has been developed. An indication of the dependability of present materials 
is the experience of the du Pont Company, a heavy and very exacting buyer 

of "stainless" equipment. In twelve months it found it necessary only in four 
cases to question standards after the most rigid of inspections. 

The thousands of applications to which Stainless Steel has been put 
throughout industry and the thousands of carefully studied tests that have 
been made of it have enabled producers to compile an immense library of 
data on which they urge prospective users to draw. As was outlined in Chap- 
ter II, not only are there four general classes but many specific types of 



page 33 






Stainless Steel. Type A may be utterly unsuited to do the work of Type B, 

and ice versa. 

As in ustn is becoming more generally aware of this fact, namely, that 

"stable 5" is not one metal but a class of metals, and is calling upon pro- 
ducers more and more for expert advice in advance of use, the chances of 
failure by stainle 3 equipment are rapidly diminishing to near zero. In the 
past >me failures regarded as serious have often been the consequence of 
;ome ich simple neglect a ick of proper lubrication methods, for example 
as in pump rods for which pressure lubrication is needed. Even more fre- 
qu« I) failure would have been readily avoided by the right sort of advance 

h ting. 

"The 1) t choice of th< proper material is not always a question merely of resistance 
to co, writes one large reel company in its catalogue. "The trength id other 

mecl characteristic desi d and the limitation of the available means of fabrii tion 

.,,., 1 t | y t r factors in selection between several materials all of which 

1 -to ist e to i r< on. 

i r n . ; 11 1 appl tions it is always a.h able to < luct a test on the 

pn) , 1 , 71 at ui il op liti< s. In some cases where a large invest 

nun . ,,, • ha Ik 1 found d< I • to coi tract a small - pilot ant. 

, „ b in bL idalaboral ryfc l simulating as nearly a | sibleactual 

■ ;.. ubstitut i. 
I , r'n in co i * th install;. employing ! 1" on 

a 1 1 n , m n c , ifficient l ml -..tinner ommendari n 

j , in be li conditw wrhw h seem to be ul« il 

l 1 f esl thin 11 - onduct teste iindei at il .pcratin 

cond fai 

, r 1 . '11. h on to glorj Lo since they 1 issed the 

'I , the) here, Hi find of Miuric , tin ne\v Firsl 

I f Del tl 1 • rid omn ent < m Rust. '1 1 ins 

racine to 1 re n e in tim s >s 1 ling tin ean \ lys, milk 

tn . rumb lu the- m lit, chemical fad ries awing nan I 

a re, f« ori< guarding the nation 

1, ^ lift of nat J oil resoun over them 

E ] I i nnon « >tainl< Prince of S 

Vfi thr y< f rosea lu rith a group of otl ivesti 

half* I \l ( in 'tee I the Ei neer F tdal >n 

f Newl >rl v I • nk \. an 1 ty on the ubjo t, wri : 






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in a ]ual rather than 










Balcony railings, Radio City Music Hall. The two lines of longitudinal 
intermediate rails are 18-8 Stainless Steel seamless rectangular tubing, 

3 A" * 2V2". 




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That turn has come in the new alloys, in the finer metals of all kinds 
that today are being produced, and among which Stainless Steel stands out 
as leader, triumphant and undisputed. 

A more comprehensive list of some of its successful uses follows: 

Marine 



Turbines 



Crews' Water Closet Troughs 



Exhaust Stacks and Manifold for Aircraft Manholes in Torpedo Bulkheads 



Torpedo Tubes 

Water Turbine Shaft Sleeves 

Marine Pump Plungers 

Galley Refrigerators 

Starboard Side-ladders 

Cutlery and Tableware 

Galley Dresser Tops 

Motor Driven Centrifugal Pumps 

Gun Director Shields 

Gun Mounts 

Deck Plates 

Turbine Diaphragm Blades 

Card Holders 

Name Plates 

Door Sills 

Door and Hatch Fittings 

Main Steam Stop Valve Seats 

Valve Stems 

By-Pass Valve-Seats 

First State x^stern Nozzles 

Sheets for Wand Lights 

Dough Troughs 

Water Tight Manholes 

Valve Discs 

Sheathing for Shaft Struts 

Wash Troughs and Toilet Shelves 



Snap Rings for Throttle Valves 

Throttle Valve Seats 

Manhole Covers 

Escape Scuttle 

Water Tight Door Bulkhead Frames 

Snap Rings for Nozzle Control for H.P. 

Turbines 
Inboard and Outboard Shaft Tubes 
Valve Lock Washers 
Stems for Main Steam Valves 

Outer Casing Sheets 

Chest Plates and Strips 

Internal Boss and Cover Plates 

Auxiliary in Sea Chests in Engine and 

Boiler Rooms 
Strips for Turbine Shroud Bands 
Bathroom Cabinets 
Lockers for Life Jacket Stowage 
Machine Gun Ammunition Service Boxes 
Benches in Crews' Washrooms 
Workbenches, Shelves and Table Tops 
Hatch Strips 
Decorative Trim 
Hinges 

Marine Valves 
Food Containers for Life Boats 



PAGE 37 



Washbowls and Waste Jars 
Washer Baskets 
Boiler Brick Pans 
Fuel Oil Pumps 

Deck Plates 

Stair Treads 

Mirrors and Reflectors 

Welding Rods 

Dishwashing Machines 

Cooking Utensils 

Main Condenser Pumps 

Masts, Spars, Yards 

Hoisting and Rotating Equipment 

Evaporator Pumps 

Fuel Oil Booster Pumps 

Electrical Galley Equipment 

Galley Dressers and Steam Tables 

Furni ire 

Bow Driving G< ir 

Flues and Funnels 

Handr Is 

Stair-rails 

Kick] ates 

Boile 

1 IP res 

Vacuum Pumps 



Motor Driven Vegetable Peeling Machines 

Bushings on xVstern Turbine 

Salinity Indicator System 

Notch Blocks 

Steam Shielding 

Bolts, Nuts and Rivets 

Hatches and Doors 

Impulse Blading 

Gate Valves 



Wire Clot! 



i 



Insulation for Fuel Oil and Feed Water 

Heaters 
Drain Boards 
Sinks 
Floor Plates 

Tools 

Svphon Valves for Airplanes 

Diesel Generator Sets 

Turret Tracks 

Holding Down Cables 

Wire for Aircraft 

Seamless Drawn Tubing for Exhaust Stacks 

and Manifolds 
Structural Shapes 
Streamline Tie-rods 
Internal Tie-rods for Aircraft Use 



A on 

1 thai Man | Pontoons, Ring te 

\nnealii _ Ho< and Boxes 
\rchitectural Trim 



Outstanding Jol : 

erac e Lighting Bldg 

Chrysler Bid 

hmpirc Sta 1 Bid 



/' 




Stainless Steel Fluted Columns. 




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Architectural Trim {Continued) 
Store Fronts 

Doors 

Ornaments 



Safe Deposit Boxes 
Automotive 

Bright Work or Tri 



m 



Working Parts 



Pump Shafts 

Valves, etc. 

Air Conditioning 

Equipment and Trim 
Beverages 

Containers 

Tanks and Piping 
Bridges 

Expansion Plates 



Tri 



mi 



Baking 

Dough Mixing Machines 
Oven Parts 
Chemicals 

Manufacturers of Phosphoric, Acetic 
and Nitric Acids 

Soda Ash, etc. 
Canning Industry 

Can Making Machines 

Cans and Canning Equipment 
Cement, Manufacturer of 

Calcining Drums 
Confectionery Industry 
Coal and Coke 

Coal Screens 

Mining Equipment 



Cutlery 

Table Knives, Forks and Spoons; Pocket 



and Butcher Knives, etc. 



Dai 



iry 



Dental 

Drugs 

Dams 

Electrical Appliances 

Fans 



Fil 



ms 



Fire Fighting Equipment 
Food Handling Equipment 
Furnace Parts 



G 



as 



Glass 

Glue 

Garbage Disposal 

Hardware 

Heat Treating Equipment 

Household Novelties 

Hospital Equipment 

Operating Room Appliances 
Surgical Instruments 
Hospital Kitchen Equipment 

Household Appliances 

Hotel and Restaurant Equipment 

Incinerators 

Ice Making Machinery 

Jails 

Jewelry 

Kitchen Equipment 

Laundry Machinery 

Marine 

{See Pages jy and 38 for Marine Use: 



PACE 4 1 



Motion Picture Industry 
Mining and Metal Refining 
Measure and Weighing Machinery 
Meat Packing 
Meters 

Mortician Trays 
Office Equipment 
Oil Burners 

Ovens 

Ordnance 

Paper and Pulp Industry 

Power Turbines 

Printing 

Petroleum 

Pumps 

Railroads 

Refrigeration 

Radio 



Rubber 

Saws 

Sporting Goods 

Surgical 

Salt 

Steam 

Shovels 

Smelting 

Sewage Disposal 

Silk Making 

Soap 

Textile 

Tobacco Machinery 

Tubing 

Turpentine 

Typewriters 

Utilities 

Valves 



PAGE 42 




Stainless Steel Exhibit. 




Stainless Steel in various applications 







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LICENSEES 




The Chemical Foundation Incorporated 

Under Strauss Patents Nos. 1,316,817 and 1,339,378 



i 



Acme Steel Company 

Allegheny Steel Company 

Alloy Metal Wire Company, Inc. 
American Chain Company, Inc. 

and Associated Companies 
American Manganese Steel Company 
American Rolling Mill Company, The 
Athenia Steel Company, The 

Babcock & Wilcox Company, The 

Babcock & Wilcox Tube Company, The 

Baldt Anchor, Chain & Forge Corporation- 
Barium Steel Corporation 

Bethlehem Steel Company, Inc. 
Bonney-Floyd Company, The 

Braeburn Alloy Steel Corporation 
Cann & Saul Steel Company 
Carpenter Steel Company, The 
Chicago Steel Foundry Company 
Colonial Steel Company 

Cooper Alloy Foundry Company, The 
Crane Company 

Crucible Steel Casting C \ipaxy,The 
Crucible Steel Company ofAmerica 
Delaware Alloy Forge Company 
Diss ion & Sons, Inc., Henry 



PAGE 45 



4 



Driver-Harris Company 
Duncan Foundry and Machine Works, Inc. 
Duraloy Company, The 
Duriron Company, Inc., The 
Eastern Rolling Mill Company, The 
Electric Steel Foundry 
Electro-Alloys Company, The 
Electro Metallurgical Company 
Empire Steel Castings, Inc. 
Enterprise Foundry Company 
Forging and Casting Corporation 
General Alloys Company 
Globe Steel Tubes Company 
Granite City Steel Company 
Griffin Manufacturing Company 
Heppenstall Company 
Illinois Steel Company, 






and Subsidiaries of U. S. Steel Corporation 
Industrial Steel Casting Company, The 
Ingersoll Steel & Disc Company 
Janney Cylinder Company 
Jessop Steel Company 

Kkopp Forge Company 
Kunkel & Son, Frank 
Larson t\ Sons, Inc., Charles E. 
Latrobe Electric Steel Company 
Lebanon Si eel Foundry 
Ludlum Steel Company 
Michiana Products Corporation 
Michigan Steel Casting Company 
Midvale Company, The 
Milwaukee Steel Foundry Company 



Monarch Foi \dry Company 
National Alloy Steel COMPANY 



PAGE 4n 



\ tTiON m Foi i] \n dn \\v i Company 

Newman-Crosby Stii Coi oration 

( )hid S I H F 01 \hk\ I OMP v\ \ 
( >i in I LEVATOR G MP I N \ 

PaCU IC 1 RV COMF \ \ \ , 1 .1 i). 

Pi nnsylvania I >rge Corpor i i ion 
Kb: c Steel Corp< -k\ i ion 

Ri\ E k i ON Si EEL COMP \\ \ 

Rustless Iron Corporation oi America 
S iron S el Hoop Com pan? 
Simonds Saii \\d Steel c impan^ 

s] vyer stee1 c \> i1ng c omp wv 

Standard Alloy Comi \ \ \ , Inc. 
Si ri i hers Weii s-Ti it s villi Cof oration, 
tltusvilll i'orge compan division 

Si perior Steel Corporation 

Symingi on C i m p \ \ v, The 

Taylor-Wharton Iron ind Steel Company 
Timken Steel <\ Pube Company, The 
Union Electric Steei Corporation 

Unix ers w. Si eel Com \\v 

Utility Trailer Mani facti ring Company 

\\ \ i LING! ORD Si EEL COMP w^, THE 

Warman Steei Casting Company, Ltd. 
Washington Iron Works 

WeHR Si i EL COMP 

\\ i.iK roN mi ii Company 
Western Cruciiu.i. Steel Casting Company 

\\ i i eechburg steel company 

West Steel Casting Company, The 

\\ n i eling Steel Corpor \ i ion 

Whitehead Metal Prodi cms Company 



PAGE 4 7